What is senescence?
- by Jurga Nemunyte
Old age - It is a biological gradual of parts and systems of the human body
The aging process is explored Gerontology Science, which not only research physiological changes, but also the place of the elderly in society. The purpose of gerontology research is to overcome possible disadvantages related to aging.
Natural (endogenous, internal, physiological, chronological) aging - Natural, biological process, which is determined by internal factors and accompanied by characteristic age changes.
Endogenic aging actually depends on one factor - information stored in DNA.
Endogenic factors: intoxication, metabolism, impaired regulation, immune balance, heredity.
Premature aging can be caused by both genetic (endogenous) and external (exogenous) factors (Sunlight, wind, indoor dryness, air contamination, gambles radiation, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, xenobiotic penetration, mechanical damage, smoking, vocational harmfulness (chemical, toxic, carcinogens)).
The modern man Risk factors:
- biological (viruses, bacteria, parasites);
- chemical (polyutants (air pollutants), preservatives, heavy metals, food antibiotics, nitrates, plastic, biochemistry, poor quality cosmetics, smoking, intestinal endotoxins);
- physical (noise, vibration, ultrasound, infrasound, thermal, ionizing, non -ionizing and other radiation);
- social (sleep deprivation, impaired work and rest regime, poor quality water);
- climatic (sudden change in temperature, cold).
Classification of the most important theories of aging and literature according to the level of integration
(Yin, Chen, 2005)
The body level
Wearing theory - Sacher, 1966
Error Catastrophe Theory - Orgel, 1963
Violations of Stress Theory - Stlye, 1970
AutoToxication Theory - Metchnikoff, 1904
Evolutionary Theory (Programmed Aging Theory) - Wilms, 1957
Theory of preservation of information (programmed theory of aging)
Endocrine theory - Korechevsky, 1961
Immunological Theory - Walford, 1969
Cell membrane theory-Zg-Nagy, 1978
Somatic mutation theory - Szilllar, 1959
Mitochondrial theory - Miquel et al., 1980
Mitochondrial-Lisosomes Theory-Brunk, Terman, 2002
Cell Proliferation Limit Theory (Programmed Aging Theory) - Hayflick, Moorhead, 1961
Level of molecules
DNA violations accumulation theory - Vilenchik, 1970
The theory of trace elements - Eichhorn, 1979
Free radical theory - Harman, 1956
Theory of transverse seams - Bjorksten, 1968
Oxidative stress theory - Sohal, Allen, 1990; Yu, Yang, 1996
Theory of neenzimal glycosillion - Cerami, 1985
Carbon intoxication theory - Yin, Brunk, 1995.