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What is senescence?

What is senescence?

 Old age - It is a biological gradual of parts and systems of the human body

Old age
the process of degradation and its effects.Old age - This is the weakening of adaptive mechanisms of the body, a decrease in their reserves.

The aging process is explored Gerontology Science, which not only research physiological changes, but also the place of the elderly in society. The purpose of gerontology research is to overcome possible disadvantages related to aging.

Natural (endogenous, internal, physiological, chronological) aging - Natural, biological process, which is determined by internal factors and accompanied by characteristic age changes.


Endogenic aging actually depends on one factor - information stored in DNA.


Endogenic factors: intoxication, metabolism, impaired regulation, immune balance, heredity.

Premature aging can be caused by both genetic (endogenous) and external (exogenous) factors (Sunlight, wind, indoor dryness, air contamination, gambles radiation, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, xenobiotic penetration, mechanical damage, smoking, vocational harmfulness (chemical, toxic, carcinogens)).


The modern man Risk factors:

  • biological (viruses, bacteria, parasites);
  • chemical (polyutants (air pollutants), preservatives, heavy metals, food antibiotics, nitrates, plastic, biochemistry, poor quality cosmetics, smoking, intestinal endotoxins);
  • physical (noise, vibration, ultrasound, infrasound, thermal, ionizing, non -ionizing and other radiation);
  • social (sleep deprivation, impaired work and rest regime, poor quality water);
  • climatic (sudden change in temperature, cold).



Classification of the most important theories of aging and literature according to the level of integration

(Yin, Chen, 2005)

  • The body level

Wearing theory - Sacher, 1966

Error Catastrophe Theory - Orgel, 1963

Violations of Stress Theory - Stlye, 1970

AutoToxication Theory - Metchnikoff, 1904

Evolutionary Theory (Programmed Aging Theory) - Wilms, 1957

Theory of preservation of information (programmed theory of aging)

  • Organ level

Endocrine theory - Korechevsky, 1961

Immunological Theory - Walford, 1969

Brain suppression

  • Cellular level

Cell membrane theory-Zg-Nagy, 1978

Somatic mutation theory - Szilllar, 1959

Mitochondrial theory - Miquel et al., 1980

Mitochondrial-Lisosomes Theory-Brunk, Terman, 2002

Cell Proliferation Limit Theory (Programmed Aging Theory) - Hayflick, Moorhead, 1961

  • Level of molecules

DNA violations accumulation theory - Vilenchik, 1970

The theory of trace elements - Eichhorn, 1979

Free radical theory - Harman, 1956

Theory of transverse seams - Bjorksten, 1968

Oxidative stress theory - Sohal, Allen, 1990; Yu, Yang, 1996

Theory of neenzimal glycosillion - Cerami, 1985

Carbon intoxication theory - Yin, Brunk, 1995.


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